A New Cyber Forensic Philosophy for Digital Watermarks in the Context of Copyright Laws

Vinod Polpaya Bhattathiripad, Sneha Sudhakaran, Roshna Khalid Thalayaniyil


The objective of this paper is to propose a new cyber forensic philosophy for watermark in the context of copyright laws for the benefit of the forensic community and the judiciary worldwide. The paper first briefly introduces various types of watermarks, and then situates watermarks in the context of the idea-expression dichotomy and the copyright laws. It then explains the forensic importance of watermarks and proposes a forensic philosophy for them in the context of copyright laws. Finally, the paper stresses the vital need to incorporate watermarks in the forensic tests to establish software copyright infringement and also urges the judiciary systems worldwide to study and legalize the evidential aspects of digital watermarks in the context of copyright laws.


Digital Watermarks, Software Copyright, Idea-Expression Dichotomy, Programming Blunders, Copyright Infringement, AFC, POSAR

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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